In traditional document management, we have several ways to authenticate the legitimacy of information–a signature, a watermark, etc. In digital spaces, we don’t readily have these tools to use. That fact, along with the reality that any piece of information can be copied ad infinitum, made authentication a challenge that security experts needed to solve.
Enter digital signatures or use cryptography to create an artifact to verify the authenticity and integrity of any piece of digital data. Digital signatures provide a way to ensure that the information has not been altered or tampered with during transmission or storage.
How do Digital Signatures Work?
Digital signatures use mathematics, the uniqueness of certain numbers, and the integrity of encryption to provide an authentication mechanism for data.
Generally speaking, the basic stages of applying a digital signature include:
- Hash Generation: First, a hashing algorithm is applied to the data. This algorithm transforms the data such that if the same data is hashed, it will return the same hash value–and if the data is manipulated, the hash output will be different. This is used to create a data record when it is sent.
- Generating the Signature: To create a digital signature, a mathematical algorithm is applied to the data and the hash using a private key in a public-key encryption system or Public Key Infrastructure. The encryption key is applied to the hash and the document, constituting the signature.
- Verification Process: The recipient decrypts the message using their public key, while at the same time hashing the decrypted document. This is compared against the has sent by the sender as part of the signature.
- Authentication and Integrity: If the hashes match, then the “signature” matches and proves that the data was signed by the holder of the private key associated with the public key used for verification. It also indicates that the data has not been altered since it was signed, ensuring both authentication and data integrity.
Additionally, a secure PKI provides a level of non-repudiation, meaning the signer cannot deny their involvement in signing the data, as only their private key could have generated the signature.
What Are Different Forms of Digital Signatures?
Digital signatures play a crucial role in cybersecurity, ensuring secure communication, verifying the authenticity of software updates, and enabling secure online transactions. By providing a strong layer of trust and validation, digital signatures help protect against data tampering and unauthorized access.
Some modern forms of digital signatures include:
- RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) Digital Signatures: RSA is one of the earliest practical public-key cryptosystems for both data encryption and signature generation. The signing process involves the private key, while the verification process involves the corresponding public key.
- Digital Signature Algorithm: DSA was proposed by NIST in August 1991 for use in their Digital Signature Standard (DSS) and has been widely adopted for its robustness and high-level security. It is also freely available as a standard on the NIST website.
- Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm: ECDSA is a variant of the DSA that uses elliptic curve cryptography (a form that uses smaller keys to provide equivalent security to other algorithms). This provides the same level of security as DSA but with shorter key lengths, making it more suitable for applications like blockchain storage.
- Edwards-curve Digital Signature Algorithm: This is a modern variant of Schnorr’s signature system and ECDSA, which offers strong security, high performance, and more resistance to side-channel attacks. EdDSA has been used in various cryptographic projects and standards.
- Hash-based Signatures: These digital signature systems use cryptographic hash functions to create signatures. These signatures resist quantum attacks and are therefore considered alternatives for post-quantum cryptography. LMS (Leighton-Micali Signature) and XMSS (eXtended Merkle Signature Scheme) are examples of hash-based signatures.
Where Are Digital Signatures Used?
Digital signatures are used in various applications across various industries because they provide authentication, integrity, and non-repudiation for digital data. Some typical applications of digital signatures include:
- Document Signing: Digital signatures are widely used to sign electronic documents, contracts, agreements, and legal records. This ensures the authenticity of the document and prevents any unauthorized modifications. This means that it can be used for signing traditional documents (PDFs, contracts, etc.) as well as digital documents (emails).
- Software Distribution: Digital signatures are employed to sign software updates and applications. Users can verify the authenticity of the software before installation, reducing the risk of downloading and running malicious software.
- Online Transactions: Digital signatures are utilized in secure online transactions, such as eCommerce purchases and financial transactions, to authenticate parties involved and ensure the integrity of transaction data.
- Medical Records and Online Prescriptions: Digital signatures are employed to sign electronic medical records, prescriptions, and other healthcare-related documents, ensuring their authenticity and preventing unauthorized changes.
- Legal and Compliance Documents: Various legal and compliance documents, like tax filings and financial statements, can be digitally signed to verify their authenticity and protect against alterations.
- Government and Official Use: Digital signatures are often used in government and official processes, such as electronic voting, digital certificates, and secure communications between government agencies.
Digital signatures are vital to ensuring the integrity of digital communication beyond trustless exchanges and serve as the backbone of how we use the Internet to exchange information.
Make Sure Your Signature Standards Align with Legal Requirements
Whether it is a demand for compliance or a requirement of a legal chain-of-custody audit trail, digital signatures ensure that any exchange of data is authentic and verified. With Continuum GRC, you can ensure that your signature mechanisms meet or exceed your requirements.
Continuum GRC is a cloud platform that can take something as routine and necessary as regular vulnerability scanning and reporting under FedRAMP and make it an easy and timely part of business in the public sector. We provide risk management and compliance support for every major regulation and compliance framework on the market, including:
- NIST 800-53
- FARS NIST 800-171
- SOC 1, SOC 2
- PCI DSS 4.0
- IRS 1075
- COSO SOX
- ISO 27000 Series
- ISO 9000 Series
And more. We are the only FedRAMP and StateRAMP Authorized compliance and risk management solution worldwide.
Continuum GRC is a proactive cyber security® and the only FedRAMP and StateRAMP Authorized cybersecurity audit platform worldwide. Call 1-888-896-6207 to discuss your organization’s cybersecurity needs and find out how we can help your organization protect its systems and ensure compliance.